Industrial Consultancy & Sponsored Research (IC&SR) , IIT Madras

Petacenetetraone (Pt) and its Dithiin Derivative as a Cathode Material for Organic Aqueous Zn-ion Batteries

Technology Category/Market

Category – Energy, Energy Storage & Renewable Energy /Advance Material & Manufacturing

Applications –Power Grids, Transport, Railway Power Supplies, Remote Controls and Flashlights

Industry –Power Generation, Transport/Automobiles

Market The Global Zinc-Ion Battery Market Size is valued at 9.10 billion in 2022 and is predicted to reach 12.30 billion by the year 2031 at a 3.55% CAGR during the forecast period for 2023-2031.


Problem Statement

  • Currently, aromatic quinones are used  as promising cathode materials for Zn-ion batteries, but they are plagued with low voltages in contrast to inorganic materials.
  • Hence, there is a need in the art to develop a working electrode extensively for aqueous Zn-ion batteries with high capacities


  • An organic electrode cathode material comprising pentacene-5,7,12,14-tetraone (PT) and its dithiin derivative, dibenzo [b,i] thianthrene-5,7,12,14-tetraone (SPT) for an aqueous metal-ion battery with an aqueous electrolyte:
  • The said cathode material is encapsulated in a mesoporous conductive additive to increase the electronic conductivity and cycling stability of the electrode, the said the conductive additive is CMK-3 carbon
  • Further discloses, a preparation of electrode material for organic aqueous Zn-ion batteries, steps comprising:
  1. Grinding a mixture containing PT or SPT, super P or CMK-3 carbon black, and PVDF in 55:35:10 (w/w/w) ratios
  2. Adding N methylpyrrolidone (NMP) to the well ground mixture to obtain a slurry
  3. Coating the slurry on a stainless steel foil (current collector)
  4. Drying the electrode overnight in an air oven at 70oC
  • The aqueous metal-ion battery is Zn-ion battery, and the electrolyte is ZnSO4
  • The strong π-stacking provides stability to PT through delocalization of π-electrons under electrochemical cycling
  • Presence of sulfur atoms in the molecular skeleton (SPT) reduces the LUMO energy of the molecule, which results in a high voltage of the cell is improved by 120 mV in comparison to PT

Key Features/Value Proposition

Technical Perspective:

  • Pentacene-5,7,12,14-tetraone(PT) as a novel cathode material for aqueous Zn-ion batteries shows excellent reversibility for Zn2+ insertion/de-insertion with a single potential plateau
  • The electrode material incorporated with CMK-3 exhibits capacity of 220 mAhg-1 with polarization of 80 mV, cycling stability up to 2000 cycle and rate capability event at 20 Ag-1
  • Further, the voltage of the Zn-ion battery is tuned by the incorporation of sulfur atoms in the PT molecular framework.

User Perspective:

  • Higher energy density Zn-ion batteries with durability
Questions about this Technology?

Contact for Licensing

Research Lab

Prof.Kothandaraman Ramanujam

Department of Chemistry

Intellectual Property

  • IITM IDF Ref. 1945
  • IN202041020063

Technology Readiness Level


Technology Validated in Lab

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